The Czech Republic is set to modernise its gambling regulation by adopting the new Act No. 186/2016 Coll., on Gambling (the "Gambling Act"). This new Gambling Act plans to open the Czech gambling market to EU and EEA residents; a step which the Czech gambling regulator (the Czech Ministry of Finance) has resisted for more than two decades.
Significant faith is being placed by the Ministry of Finance into the proposed regulation of online gambling, as it is intended to become a stable and strong tax revenue stream for the Czech Republic.
Whilst foreign gambling operators have not as yet been entitled to obtain a licence to gamble in the Czech Republic, many domestic entities, which are entitled to obtain a licence, do not do so but still continue to operate in the Czech gambling market.
This prosperous "grey market" is tolerated, at least for now, by the Czech Ministry of Finance, and by all accounts it is said to function well. To some extent, this is due to a lack of effective counter measures that could be applied to such "grey" operators, in addition to the fact that most of the grey operators actually possess some sort of governmental licence issued by a different EU or EEA member state. The currently in force Lotteries Act allows the Ministry of Finance to impose fines upon individuals gambling at these unlicensed gambling venues. However, such enforcement measure has, to our knowledge, been used only once.
Such a tolerant policy is very likely going to change with the new Gambling Act. It introduces new enforcement measures which will allow the Ministry of Finance to force the grey market participants to acquire a licence and thus pay gambling tax. More on this topic can be found in our previous article.
By way of a brief introduction – skin betting is an activity which most often refers to the act of placing a bet on the outcome of an online game (i.e. Counter Strike Global Offensive), where the bets themselves usually take the form of cosmetic or design elements used by players in the game. These items improve the look of in-game equipment, allowing the players to customise their game environment. Who wouldn't fancy a golden AK-47? These in-game "fashion statements" can be purchased, traded, transferred or wagered via certain websites. "Skins" are thus used by players almost in the same way as virtual currency; the only difference is that the skins acceptance network is not as wide. That being said, the number of websites facilitating skin betting is growing, such that the value of the skin betting market is estimated to be in the billions of US dollars.
The new Gambling Act has been drafted to contain a general gambling definition, which reads as follows:
"Gambling is a game of chance, betting or a lottery upon which the participant wagers a bet, while no return on such bet is guaranteed and the winning or loss of which is entirely or partly subject to chance or unknown circumstance."
In principle, it appears that skin betting would be caught by such broad criteria. Furthermore, in order for a gambling activity to be licensable, the Gambling Act requires the gambling activity to fit one of the predefined categories (e.g. technical game, lottery, or odds betting). Skin betting is likely to meet the requirements of odds betting which is defined as:
"a game in which a win is subject to guessing a betting event."
But to what extent does the use of virtual goods/currency as a subject of betting cause legal issues?
On the one hand, the legislator's intention behind the Gambling Act was to design a broad definition of a "bet" and refrain from limiting the term only to money. The definition of bet reads as follows:
"Bet means a non-refundable consideration determined voluntarily by the bettor that will be compared to the outcome of gambling, including: