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  1. Legal news
    20 December 2018
    Dutch Legislator proposes licence requirement for crypto currency exchanges and crypto wallet providers under anti-money laundering legislation
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2018/netherlands/dutch-legislator-proposes-licence-requirement-for-crypto-currency-exchanges

    The Dutch legislator published a draft legislative proposal implementing the AMLD5 into Dutch law for consultation on 11 December 2018. Market parties can submit their views until 15 January 2019.

  2. Legal news
    21 May 2018
    ICO: Regulation of Types of Token in Germany
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2018/germany/ico-arten-und-regulierung-von-tokens

    ICOs (Initial Coin Offering), often referred to as ITS (Initial Token Sale) or TGE (Token Generation Event), are a current hot topic for debate. The product issued in an ICO is a blockchain-based coin or token ...

  3. Legal news
    08 November 2019
    UK tax treatment of cryptoassets for companies finally confirmed
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/uk/uk-tax-treatment-of-cryptoassets-for-companies-finally-confirmed

    HMRC finally published its policy paper on the taxation of cryptoasset exchange tokens for companies and other businesses on 1 November 2019.

  4. Legal news
    17 June 2021
    Germany Jumps Ahead With Crypto Travel Rule Introduction
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2021/germany/germany-jumps-ahead-with-crypto-travel-rule-introduction

    Vixio recently published an article featuring commentary from our German counsel Johannes Wirtz. The article covers the German Ministry of Finance’s decision to introduce new rules for crypto transactions.

  5. Legal news
    24 September 2021
    Fund units on the blockchain - draft crypto fund units ordinance (Kryptofondsanteileverordnung)
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2021/germany/fund-units-on-the-blockchain

    On 6 September 2021, the German Federal Ministry of Finance and the German Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection presented its draft regulation for the introduction of crypto fund units (KryptoFAV). ...

  6. Legal news
    11 June 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens – Update BaFin’s view
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/icolegal-classification-of-tokens

    Depending on the rights a Token conveys, it can be a Security Token, a Currency Token, a Utility Token or take a hybrid form. Legal literature and regulatory practice can at times diverge.

  7. Legal news
    29 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 3 - Currency Token
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens-3

    Part 3/5 - Currency Token: Currency Token, also called cryptocurrency, are the origin of token. The most well-known example for a coin is Bitcoin. Other examples of Currency Token are Ethereum (or Ether) and Ripple

  8. Legal news
    05 June 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: Part 5 - Hybrid Forms
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens-part-5

    Part 5/5 – Hybrid Forms: A token may have features of security token, currency token and/or utility token. These hybrid forms require a case by case assessment of applicable regulation.

  9. Legal news
    23 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 1 Issuance of coins
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens

    Part 1/5: The Issuance of coins and tokens are an innovative way to raise capital and fund projects using distributed ledger technology. This first part introduces the technology, its structure and basic legal ...