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  1. Legal news
    24 July 2018
    EBA publishes final Guidelines on fraud reporting under PSD2
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2018/global/eba-publishes-final-guidelines-on-fraud-reporting-under-psd2

    The European Banking Authority (EBA) has published the final Guidelines on fraud reporting under the revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2).

  2. Legal news
    07 May 2019
    The EC puts an end to decades of competition law enforcement against interchange fees: What's next for interchange fees?
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ec-puts-an-end-to-decades-of-competition-law-enforcement-against-interchange-fees

    We provide below a brief recap on the many-many years of competition law enforcement by the European Commission (EC) against interchange fees, a summary of the EC decision of 29 April 2019 related to Visa's and ...

  3. Legal news
    29 March 2019
    Brexit: "Brexit Decree" and Bank of Italy's requirements for UK and Italian financial institutions
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/uk/brexit-decree-and-bank-of-italls-requirements-for

    As decided by the European Council on March 21st, if the British Parliament will approve by March 29th the agreement of withdrawal agreed by the UK government with the European Union, the exit of the United Kingdom from ...

  4. Legal news
    29 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 3 - Currency Token
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens-3

    Part 3/5 - Currency Token: Currency Token, also called cryptocurrency, are the origin of token. The most well-known example for a coin is Bitcoin. Other examples of Currency Token are Ethereum (or Ether) and Ripple

  5. Legal news
    28 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 2 - security token
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens-2

    Part 2/5 - Security Token: By issuing security tokens the issuer promises some sort of return. Token can qualify as securities according to the German Security Trading Act (WpHG) and German Security Prospectus Act ...

  6. Legal news
    05 June 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: Part 5 - Hybrid Forms
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens-part-5

    Part 5/5 – Hybrid Forms: A token may have features of security token, currency token and/or utility token. These hybrid forms require a case by case assessment of applicable regulation.

  7. Legal news
    13 August 2019
    Regulation of Digital Platforms in Australia and UK
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/regulation-of-digital-platforms-in-australia-and-uk

    A look at the recent Australian and UK inquiries, and what the new wave of regulation of digital platforms (and, in Australia, media and journalism) might look like in 2019 and beyond.