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  1. Legal news
    11 October 2018
    The CJEU provides clarity on the definition of a "payment account"
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2018/global/the-cjeu-provides-clarity-on-the-definition-of-a-payment-account

    On 4 October 2018, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruled that a bank account which does not allow the account holder to make payments to third parties, or to receive payments from third parties, does ...

  2. Legal news
    16 November 2020
    Quantification of cartel damages – first German Court recourses to freehand estimation
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/germany/quantification-of-cartel-damages

    The Regional Court of Dortmund is the first German court quantifying a cartel damage claim by estimating the amount of damage on the basis of § 287 of the Code of Civil Procedure of Germany. In contrast to the previous ...

  3. Legal news
    03 December 2020
    Dutch regulator calls for tighter regulation of Big Techs in payment market study
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/netherlands/dutch-regulator-calls-for-tighter-regulation-of-big-techs-in-payment-market-study

    On 1 December 2020, the Dutch competition authority (ACM) published its long-awaited report on the role of major technology firms (Big Techs) in the payment market. The publication of the report was expected in the ...

  4. Legal news
    23 March 2021
    CMA launches consultation on the future governance of open banking
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2021/uk/cma-launches-consultation-on-the-future-governance-of-open-banking

    As the implementation phase of open banking comes to an end, the UK’s Competition and Market’s Authority (CMA) is currently accepting submissions from stakeholders on proposals by banking industry body UK Finance to ...

  5. Legal news
    29 March 2021
    The UK’s Payment Systems Regulator has published its Annual Plan and Budget for 2021/22
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2021/uk/the-uk-payment-systems-regulator-has-published-its-annual-plan-and-budget-for-2021-22

    On 24 March 2021, the PSR published its Annual Plan and Budget for the forthcoming year, outlining its plans to improve outcomes in payments now, but also in the future. The PSR is the first economic regulator to ...

  6. Legal news
    07 January 2021
    UK and EU Trade and Co-operation Agreement - Key points to consider for financial services and payments
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2021/uk/uk-and-eu-trade-and-co-operation-agreement-key-points-to-consider-for-financial-services

    The UK and the EU agreed a Trade and Co-operation Agreement (TCA) on 24 December 2020 which came into force on 1 January 2021 on 'basis' which is provisional until full ratification. The TCA covers many areas, mainly ...

  7. Legal news
    07 May 2019
    The EC puts an end to decades of competition law enforcement against interchange fees: What's next for interchange fees?
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ec-puts-an-end-to-decades-of-competition-law-enforcement-against-interchange-fees

    We provide below a brief recap on the many-many years of competition law enforcement by the European Commission (EC) against interchange fees, a summary of the EC decision of 29 April 2019 related to Visa's and ...

  8. Legal news
    13 February 2020
    Apple Pay under Competition Law scrutiny
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/apple-pay-under-competition-law-scrutiny

    DG COMP is investigating Apple Pay. In this article, we discuss some of the issues that, we believe, must be discussed at part of that investigation.

  9. Legal news
    18 August 2020
    Publication of the new French merger control guidelines
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/france/publication-of-the-new-french-merger-control-guidelines

    The French Competition Authority (FCA) recently published its new merger control guidelines. The adoption of these new guidelines follows a series of public consultations and is part of the FCA’s efforts to simplify and ...