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  1. Legal news
    08 July 2019
    Dutch Data Protection Authority warns banks to refrain from using transactional data for direct marketing purposes
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/netherlands/dutch-data-protection-authority-warns-banks-to-refrain-from-using-transactional-data

    In this client alert we discuss the recent letter from Dutch Data Protection Authority calling out to banks to reconsider any plans they may have to use personal data in transactional data for direct marketing purposes, ...

  2. Legal news
    08 July 2019
    Statement from the Danish FSA regarding SCA in the light of the opinion from the Danish FSA
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/germany/statement-from-the-danish-fsa-regarding-sca

    The Danish FSA (DFSA) has just issued a statement following the EBA's opinion of 21 June 2019 on Strong Customer Authentication (SCA).

  3. Legal news
    09 October 2019
    ICO – Germany’s BaFin publishes new guidance notice on crypto token regulation
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/germany/ico-neues-bafin-merkblatt

    On 16 August 2019, the German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin) published an updated guidance notice (German) on the issuance of crypto token (e.g. through ICO, ITS or TGE) providing assistance with ...

  4. Legal news
    07 August 2019
    Implementation of the fifth Anti-Money Laundering Directive: Rise or Demise of the German Crypto Market?
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/germany/umsetzung-der-5-geldwaescherichtlinie

    The German Ministry of Finance (Bundesministerium der Finanzen – BMF) published a draft legislative proposal (German) to implement the European directive to amend the fourth European anti-money laundering directive ...

  5. Legal news
    17 January 2019
    PayPal Surcharging: FlixMobility appeals decision of Munich Regional Court
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/germany/paypal-surcharging-urteil-flixmobility-legt-berufung-ein

    FlixMobility responds with an appeal to a surprising decision of the Regional Court of Munich I (LG München) from December 2018 in favor of the German association to combat unfair competition (Wettbewerbszentrale) which ...

  6. Legal news
    02 August 2019
    No licensing requirement for providers of crypto exchanges and crypto wallets in the Netherlands
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/no-licensing-requirement-for-providers-of-crypto-exchanges-and-crypto-wallets-in-the-netherlands

    On 2 July 2019, the Dutch Minister of Finance (the Minister) submitted the bill to implement the 5th Anti-Money Laundering Directive (Directive 2018/843 - 5th AMLD) and to amend – particularly - the Dutch Money ...

  7. Legal news
    19 August 2019
    Financing Options – New Framework for Startups in Germany
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/germany/financing-options-new-framework-for-startups-in-germany

    One of the most important questions for every young enterprise is its financing. Business angels, accelerator programmes and classic bank financing are just some of the options. Rather new is the possibility of ...

  8. Legal news
    11 June 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens – Update BaFin’s view
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/icolegal-classification-of-tokens

    Depending on the rights a Token conveys, it can be a Security Token, a Currency Token, a Utility Token or take a hybrid form. Legal literature and regulatory practice can at times diverge.

  9. Legal news
    21 August 2019
    PSD2: BaFin announces postponing SCA-rules for online credit card payments in Germany
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/germany/psd2-bafin-announces-postponing-sca-rules-for-online-credit-card-payments-in-germany

    The requirement of Strong Customer Authentication (SCA) for payment service providers was scheduled for 14 September 2019. Germany’s Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin), however, just announced it will not ...

  10. Legal news
    22 January 2019
    Italian supervisory instructions for banks
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/italian-supervisory-instructions-for-banks

    Bank of Italy implemented EBA Guidelines on major incident reporting and EBA Guidelines on the security measures for operational and security risks of payment services