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  1. Legal news
    03 July 2017
    Electronic Payment Systems Regulations in the UAE
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2017/global/electronic-payment-systems-regulations

    To aid the UAE government's efforts to position the UAE as a leader in digital services, on 1 January 2017, the UAE Central Bank published the Regulatory Framework For Stored Values and Electronic Payment Systems (the ...

  2. Legal news
    07 May 2019
    The EC puts an end to decades of competition law enforcement against interchange fees: What's next for interchange fees?
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ec-puts-an-end-to-decades-of-competition-law-enforcement-against-interchange-fees

    We provide below a brief recap on the many-many years of competition law enforcement by the European Commission (EC) against interchange fees, a summary of the EC decision of 29 April 2019 related to Visa's and ...

  3. Legal news
    21 August 2019
    PSD2: BaFin announces postponing SCA-rules for online credit card payments in Germany
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/germany/psd2-bafin-announces-postponing-sca-rules-for-online-credit-card-payments-in-germany

    The requirement of Strong Customer Authentication (SCA) for payment service providers was scheduled for 14 September 2019. Germany’s Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin), however, just announced it will not ...

  4. Legal news
    29 March 2019
    Brexit: "Brexit Decree" and Bank of Italy's requirements for UK and Italian financial institutions
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/uk/brexit-decree-and-bank-of-italls-requirements-for

    As decided by the European Council on March 21st, if the British Parliament will approve by March 29th the agreement of withdrawal agreed by the UK government with the European Union, the exit of the United Kingdom from ...

  5. Legal news
    23 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 1 Issuance of coins
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens

    Part 1/5: The Issuance of coins and tokens are an innovative way to raise capital and fund projects using distributed ledger technology. This first part introduces the technology, its structure and basic legal ...

  6. Legal news
    29 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 3 - Currency Token
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens-3

    Part 3/5 - Currency Token: Currency Token, also called cryptocurrency, are the origin of token. The most well-known example for a coin is Bitcoin. Other examples of Currency Token are Ethereum (or Ether) and Ripple

  7. Legal news
    11 June 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens – Update BaFin’s view
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/icolegal-classification-of-tokens

    Depending on the rights a Token conveys, it can be a Security Token, a Currency Token, a Utility Token or take a hybrid form. Legal literature and regulatory practice can at times diverge.

  8. Legal news
    28 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 2 - security token
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens-2

    Part 2/5 - Security Token: By issuing security tokens the issuer promises some sort of return. Token can qualify as securities according to the German Security Trading Act (WpHG) and German Security Prospectus Act ...