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  1. Legal news
    14 June 2018
    EBA publishes an opinion and a consultation paper on the implementation of the RTS on strong customer authentication and common and secure communication under PSD2
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2018/global/eba-publishes-opinion-consultation-paper-implementation-of-rts-customer-authentication

    The European Banking Authority (EBA) today published two important documents on PSD2: an Opinion on the implementation of the RTS on strong customer authentication (SCA) and Common Secure Communication (CSC) and a ...

  2. Legal news
    24 July 2018
    EBA publishes final Guidelines on fraud reporting under PSD2
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2018/global/eba-publishes-final-guidelines-on-fraud-reporting-under-psd2

    The European Banking Authority (EBA) has published the final Guidelines on fraud reporting under the revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2).

  3. Legal news
    07 May 2019
    The EC puts an end to decades of competition law enforcement against interchange fees: What's next for interchange fees?
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ec-puts-an-end-to-decades-of-competition-law-enforcement-against-interchange-fees

    We provide below a brief recap on the many-many years of competition law enforcement by the European Commission (EC) against interchange fees, a summary of the EC decision of 29 April 2019 related to Visa's and ...

  4. Legal news
    29 March 2019
    Brexit: "Brexit Decree" and Bank of Italy's requirements for UK and Italian financial institutions
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/uk/brexit-decree-and-bank-of-italls-requirements-for

    As decided by the European Council on March 21st, if the British Parliament will approve by March 29th the agreement of withdrawal agreed by the UK government with the European Union, the exit of the United Kingdom from ...

  5. Legal news
    23 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 1 Issuance of coins
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens

    Part 1/5: The Issuance of coins and tokens are an innovative way to raise capital and fund projects using distributed ledger technology. This first part introduces the technology, its structure and basic legal ...

  6. Legal news
    29 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 3 - Currency Token
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens-3

    Part 3/5 - Currency Token: Currency Token, also called cryptocurrency, are the origin of token. The most well-known example for a coin is Bitcoin. Other examples of Currency Token are Ethereum (or Ether) and Ripple

  7. Legal news
    11 June 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens – Update BaFin’s view
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/icolegal-classification-of-tokens

    Depending on the rights a Token conveys, it can be a Security Token, a Currency Token, a Utility Token or take a hybrid form. Legal literature and regulatory practice can at times diverge.