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  1. Legal news
    03 July 2017
    Electronic Payment Systems Regulations in the UAE
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2017/global/electronic-payment-systems-regulations

    To aid the UAE government's efforts to position the UAE as a leader in digital services, on 1 January 2017, the UAE Central Bank published the Regulatory Framework For Stored Values and Electronic Payment Systems (the ...

  2. Legal news
    16 August 2019
    PSD2: Germany’s BaFin pulls emergency brakes on account interfaces. Fintechs stand to benefit, banks must step up their game.
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/psd2-germanys-bafin-pulls-emergency-brakes-on-account-interfaces

    Germany’s Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin) concludes in a circular that bank’s new account interfaces do not conform to PSD2 requirements. They may thus not switch off access through existing interfaces.

  3. Legal news
    07 May 2019
    PSD2/ZAG: Strong Customer Authentication and Direct Debiting Schemes
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/germany/psd2-zag-strong-customer-authentication-and-direct-debiting-schemes

    German regulator BaFin limits the application of strong customer authentication for direct debiting schemes.

  4. Legal news
    17 May 2019
    Liberation of Crowdfunding in germany
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/germany/liberation-of-crowdfunding-in-germany

    German Legislator reforms rules for crowdfunding allowing for broader exemption, transparency and investor protection

  5. Legal news
    02 July 2019
    German implementation of AMLD5: Performance of anti-money laundering due diligence by third parties under the draft bill for the implementation of Directive (EU) 2018/843
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/germany/german-implementation-of-amld5

    The German Ministry of Finance published a proposal to implement Directive (EU) 2018/843 (fifth Anti-Money Laundering Directive) into German national law. The draft proposes changes when using trusted third parties.

  6. Legal news
    03 May 2017
    PSD2 and Draft EBA RTS - Outstanding Questions
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2017/global/psd2-and-draft-eba-rts-outstanding-questions

    Brussels partner Scott McInnes specialises in competition law, as well as the regulation of financial services and in particular payments.

  7. Legal news
    23 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 1 Issuance of coins
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens

    Part 1/5: The Issuance of coins and tokens are an innovative way to raise capital and fund projects using distributed ledger technology. This first part introduces the technology, its structure and basic legal ...

  8. Legal news
    29 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 3 - Currency Token
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens-3

    Part 3/5 - Currency Token: Currency Token, also called cryptocurrency, are the origin of token. The most well-known example for a coin is Bitcoin. Other examples of Currency Token are Ethereum (or Ether) and Ripple

  9. Legal news
    11 June 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens – Update BaFin’s view
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/icolegal-classification-of-tokens

    Depending on the rights a Token conveys, it can be a Security Token, a Currency Token, a Utility Token or take a hybrid form. Legal literature and regulatory practice can at times diverge.