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  1. Legal news
    17 January 2019
    EBA and ESMA reports on crypto-assets
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/eba-and-esma-reports-on-crypto-assets

    On January 9, 2019, the European Banking Authority (EBA) and the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) each published advice on crypto-assets to the European Commission (EC) and the European Union ...

  2. Legal news
    09 April 2019
    EBA publish their final report on their guidelines on outsourcing arrangements
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/eba-publish-their-final-report-on-their-guidelines-on-outsoucing-arrangements

    On 25 February 2019, the European Banking Authority (EBA) published their final report on their guidelines on outsourcing arrangements.

  3. Legal news
    01 April 2019
    EBA published first responses to concerns raised by its Working Group on APIs under PSD2
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/eba-published-first-responses-to-concerns-raised-by-its-working-group-on-apis-under-psd2

    On 11 March 2019, the European Banking Authority (EBA) published clarifications to the first set of issues that had been raised and discussed by participants of its Working Group (WG) on Application Programming ...

  4. Legal news
    12 December 2018
    Memorandum of Understanding details the common approach of some EU national regulators to monitoring the separation of card schemes and processing units under the IFR
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2018/global/mou-details-common-approach-of-some-eu-regulators-separation-of-card-schemes-and-processing-units

    Regulators in eight Member States (Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, UK) have entered into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) which aims to develop a consistent approach to ...

  5. Legal news
    09 June 2020
    French report proposes payments data localisation requirements
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/france/french-report-proposes-payments-data-localisation-requirements

    In February 2020, a report submitted to the French Minister of the Economy and Finance (available here – the Report) suggests that a data localisation requirement should be imposed on payments data, and that France ...

  6. Legal news
    06 April 2020
    Director's duties and COVID-19
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/directors-duties-and-covid19

    Directors have a duty to act in the best interests of the company. A director has the following general duties under the Companies Act 2006:

  7. Legal news
    13 August 2020
    Revision of EEA Interchange Fee Regulation appears unlikely – at least for now
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/revision-of-eea-interchange-fee-regulation-appears-unlikely

    Card issuers, acquirers and merchants are among those preparing for a public hearing to take stock of the EEA Interchange Fee Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2015/751 – IFR), due to be organised by the European Commission ...

  8. Legal news
    13 August 2020
    New EU obligations for PSPs regarding information they hold on the application of VAT on payment transactions
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/new-eu-obligations-for-psps

    On 18 February, the Council of the European Union approved a series of rules (including a Directive and a Regulation) aimed at facilitating the detection of tax fraud for VAT purposes in cross-border payment ...

  9. Legal news
    21 September 2020
    Response to public consultation on EDPB Guidelines 06/2020 on the interplay
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/response-to-public-consultation-on-edpb-guidelines-06-2020-on-the-interplay

    In July 2020, the European Data Protection Board (“EDPB”) published its guidelines on the interplay between PSD2 and GDPR for public consultation. Bird & Bird has filed a response to such public consultation which ...

  10. Legal news
    25 November 2020
    The EU Court of Justice rules on various PSD2 provisions, including potential cardholder liability in relation to contactless payments
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/the-eu-court-of-justice-rules-on-various-psd2-provisions-including-potential-cardholder-liability

    As we know, the area of payments is a complex one, not only because of the way in which payments operate (i.e. the technology is sometimes complex), but also because the relevant legislation is not always very clear, is ...