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  1. Legal news
    09 April 2019
    EBA publish their final report on their guidelines on outsourcing arrangements
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/eba-publish-their-final-report-on-their-guidelines-on-outsoucing-arrangements

    On 25 February 2019, the European Banking Authority (EBA) published their final report on their guidelines on outsourcing arrangements.

  2. Legal news
    16 August 2019
    PSD2: Germany’s BaFin pulls emergency brakes on account interfaces. Fintechs stand to benefit, banks must step up their game.
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/psd2-germanys-bafin-pulls-emergency-brakes-on-account-interfaces

    Germany’s Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin) concludes in a circular that bank’s new account interfaces do not conform to PSD2 requirements. They may thus not switch off access through existing interfaces.

  3. Legal news
    25 March 2019
    Launch of the EBA Register of Payment Institutions (PIs) and Electronic Money Institutions (EMIs) under PSD2
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/launch-of-the-eba-register-of-payment-institutions-pis-and-electronic

    On 18 March 2019, the European Banking Authority (EBA) launched its central electronic register under the Payments Services Directive (PSD2).

  4. Legal news
    01 November 2018
    Germany: Munich Regional Court to decide on surcharging when using PayPal
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2018/germany/regional-court-munich-to-decide-on-surcharging-when-using-paypal

    A private German association to combat unfair competition (so-called Wettbewerbszentrale) and Flixmobility (company behind long-distance bus service operator Flixbus) argue in front of Munich’s regional court about ...

  5. Legal news
    07 May 2019
    The EC puts an end to decades of competition law enforcement against interchange fees: What's next for interchange fees?
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ec-puts-an-end-to-decades-of-competition-law-enforcement-against-interchange-fees

    We provide below a brief recap on the many-many years of competition law enforcement by the European Commission (EC) against interchange fees, a summary of the EC decision of 29 April 2019 related to Visa's and ...

  6. Legal news
    24 July 2018
    EBA publishes final Guidelines on fraud reporting under PSD2
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2018/global/eba-publishes-final-guidelines-on-fraud-reporting-under-psd2

    The European Banking Authority (EBA) has published the final Guidelines on fraud reporting under the revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2).

  7. Legal news
    23 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 1 Issuance of coins
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens

    Part 1/5: The Issuance of coins and tokens are an innovative way to raise capital and fund projects using distributed ledger technology. This first part introduces the technology, its structure and basic legal ...

  8. Legal news
    11 June 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens – Update BaFin’s view
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/icolegal-classification-of-tokens

    Depending on the rights a Token conveys, it can be a Security Token, a Currency Token, a Utility Token or take a hybrid form. Legal literature and regulatory practice can at times diverge.

  9. Legal news
    14 October 2020
    Commission Digital Finance Package Strategies
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/commission-digital-finance-package-strategies

    On 24 September 2020, the European Commission unveiled its Digital Finance Package.

  10. Legal news
    15 June 2020
    Commission seeks views on 'gatekeeper' platforms and a new competition tool
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/commission-seeks-views-on-gatekeeper-platforms-and-a-new-competition-tool

    On 2 June, the Commission launched a public consultation on its forthcoming Digital Services Act plus a New Competition Tool and is requesting feedback on roadmaps including one on ex ante regulatory instruments for ...