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  1. Legal news
    23 May 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens: part 1 Issuance of coins
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/ico-legal-classification-of-tokens

    Part 1/5: The Issuance of coins and tokens are an innovative way to raise capital and fund projects using distributed ledger technology. This first part introduces the technology, its structure and basic legal ...

  2. Legal news
    11 June 2019
    ICO: Legal Classification of Tokens – Update BaFin’s view
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/icolegal-classification-of-tokens

    Depending on the rights a Token conveys, it can be a Security Token, a Currency Token, a Utility Token or take a hybrid form. Legal literature and regulatory practice can at times diverge.

  3. Legal news
    17 January 2019
    EBA and ESMA reports on crypto-assets
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/eba-and-esma-reports-on-crypto-assets

    On January 9, 2019, the European Banking Authority (EBA) and the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) each published advice on crypto-assets to the European Commission (EC) and the European Union ...

  4. Legal news
    21 January 2019
    When is an air carrier not an air carrier? A Regulation 261 anomaly
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/when-is-an-air-carrier-not-an-air-carrier-a-regulation-261-anomaly

    On 6 December 2018 the European Court of Justice ("ECJ") issued a preliminary ruling concerning the interpretation of EU Regulation 261/2004 ("Regulation 261") Article 2(a), Article 5(1)(c) and Article 7(1). These ...

  5. Legal news
    01 April 2019
    EBA published first responses to concerns raised by its Working Group on APIs under PSD2
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/eba-published-first-responses-to-concerns-raised-by-its-working-group-on-apis-under-psd2

    On 11 March 2019, the European Banking Authority (EBA) published clarifications to the first set of issues that had been raised and discussed by participants of its Working Group (WG) on Application Programming ...

  6. Legal news
    09 April 2019
    EBA publish their final report on their guidelines on outsourcing arrangements
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2019/global/eba-publish-their-final-report-on-their-guidelines-on-outsoucing-arrangements

    On 25 February 2019, the European Banking Authority (EBA) published their final report on their guidelines on outsourcing arrangements.

  7. Legal news
    25 November 2020
    The EU Court of Justice rules on various PSD2 provisions, including potential cardholder liability in relation to contactless payments
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/the-eu-court-of-justice-rules-on-various-psd2-provisions-including-potential-cardholder-liability

    As we know, the area of payments is a complex one, not only because of the way in which payments operate (i.e. the technology is sometimes complex), but also because the relevant legislation is not always very clear, is ...

  8. Legal news
    23 October 2020
    EBA consults on changes to its guidelines on major incident reporting under PSD2
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/eba-consults-on-changes-to-its-guidelines-on-major-incident-reporting-under-psd2

    On 14 October 2020, the European Banking Authority (EBA) launched a public consultation on the revision of the current EBA Guidelines on major incident reporting under Directive (EU) 2015/2366 (PSD2) -EBA/GL/2017/10- ...

  9. Legal news
    14 October 2020
    Commission Digital Finance Package Strategies
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/commission-digital-finance-package-strategies

    On 24 September 2020, the European Commission unveiled its Digital Finance Package.

  10. Legal news
    29 July 2020
    Sustainable finance in aviation: what does the future hold?
    www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2020/global/sustainable-finance-in-aviation-what-does-the-future-hold

    As sustainability play a greater role in driving investment decisions in the aviation industry, our Aviation Finance team looks at the current position and explores what the future might look like.